On your firewall there, you are using private addresses for inside and outside...
You don't appear to have any NAT configuration or statics. The ASA needs to have an xlate table entry one way or the other, even if things aren't changing.
Try upping your logging to debug and see what errors are popping up on the ASA as you try to move traffic through, that will likely help you!
Missing NAT config (which version Code, on ASA, and we can help you ?)
2.) need a return route on the Router, telling internet sourced traffic how to reach hosts behind ASA. (e.g. if you're going to NAT the Exchange behind a pub IP on the ASA< you need to make ASA next hop inbound, in your Router, for that Network / Host-IP)
pubIP--<Inside-192>--->--->(NAT) ASA---<natted_IP>---> ((INET_Router)pub_Internet
upon return, it looks like this
INET-HOST--->"Some-Pub-IP"---<<your router>>-->-->--(where do i go?)--|<ASA>>|--192-lan