With these types of questions you need to ask yourself the following questions.
What is the network address?
What is the broadcast address?
What is the FVH?
What is the LVH?
Then you can see if the address in question fits within the range of valid hosts. Ok...lets take each one independently.
1) 188.8.131.52 mask 255.255.254.0
A mask of 255.255.254.0 = /23 means two /24s. So the networks are counting by "2" in the third octet:
184.108.40.206/23 ---> belongs here
Now we can answer the questions above.
What is the network address? 220.127.116.11
What is the broadcast address? 18.104.22.168
What is the FVH? 22.214.171.124
What is the LVH? 126.96.36.199
So, 188.8.131.52 is a valid host address within the network 184.108.40.206/23
2) 220.127.116.11 mask 255.255.254.0
Again, we are counting by "2" in the third octet.
So the networks for this address are:
18.104.22.168/23 ---> belongs here
Again answer the same questions.
What is the network address? 22.214.171.124
What is the broadcast address? 126.96.36.199
What is the FVH? 188.8.131.52
What is the LVH? 184.108.40.206
So, 220.127.116.11 is a valid host address within the network 18.104.22.168/23
Search forum for some tips and for Magic Number (or Multiplier);
Magic number is 256 - 254 =2 that happens to be in 3rd octet, so in that octet,
you can start counting from 0, add 2, +2=4, 6, 8, 10, ....
then follow Brian's explanation on why is valid IP